Changes in the PTAB: From BRI to Ordinary and Customary Meaning

By Carla Vercellone In May of this year, the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (‘USPTO’) issued a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking. Therein, it solicited and collected comments on the potential switch from the Broadest Reasonable Interpretation (‘BRI’) standard to the Ordinary and Customary meaning of a claim in Phillips v. AWH Corp., 415 F.3d 1303 (Fed. Circ. 2005) on claim construction for AIA Trial Proceedings. Due to the public’s favoring of this change, the issue was submitted to the Office of Management & Budget (‘OMB’) for final regulatory approval. Finally, the Final Rule Package was published on October 10th, 2018; it will affect inter partes review (IPR), post-grant review (PGR), and the transitional program for covered business method patents (CBM) proceedings before the PTAB filed on or after the effective date of this new rule, November 13th, 2018. There are three parts within a claim that patent owners need to keep in mind as they write it: it must be written

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Claim Construction By Federal Circuit In Owens Corning v. Fast Felt Corp.

By Michael D. Stein   The Federal Circuit in Owens Corning v. Fast Felt Corporation, 2016-2613 (Fed. Cir. 2017) reversed the Patent Trial and Appeal Board’s (PTAB) final written decision in IPR2015-00650, providing additional guidance on claim construction.  In the Final Written Decision, the Board found that all of the elements of the independent claims of US Patent 8,137,757 are disclosed in Lassiter when combined with either Hefele or Eaton, contrary to Fast Felt’s assertions.  But the Board also found that Owens Corning failed to show that a skilled artisan would have combined Lassiter with Hefele or Eaton.  Thus, the Board rejected Owen’s challenges to claims 1, 2, 4, 6 and 7.  The Final Written Decision hinged on the scope of the phrase “roofing or building cover material.” In the claim construction analysis, the Board construed the claim term “roofing or building cover material” to mean base substrate materials such as dry felt, fiberglass mat, and/or polyester mat, before coating

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Claim Language Defined in the Specification Is Reason for Overturning District Courts Ruling of Invalidity for Violating the Recapture Rule

By Kevin M. Repper In AIA Engineering Ltd. v. Magotteaux Intern. S/A, 657 F.3d 1264 (Fed.Cir.2011), the Federal Circuit overturned a district court judgment of invalidity under the recapture rule of 35 U.S.C. § 251.  The court held that the patentee was acting as his own lexicographer, instead of attempting to broaden his own claims, when he repeatedly used the term “solid solution” during patent prosecution. Magotteaux International was granted aU.S.patent directed to wear products used for crushing and grinding abrasive materials.  Consistently throughout the prosecution of the patent, the patentee used the claim language “ceramic pads consisting of a homogenous solid solution of 20-80 percent aluminum oxide and 80-20 percent zirconium oxide.”  Magotteaux later applied for reissue to change “consisting of” to “comprising” and “solid solution” to a “ceramic composition.”  The reissue patent was granted. A year later, AIA Engineering sued Magotteaux in the U.S. District Court for Middle District of Tennessee.  AIA sought declaratory judgment of noninfringement, invalidity,

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Typhoon Touch v. Dell: Claims Saved From Aristocrat Invalidity But No Infringement Found

By Chris Reaves A massive infringement suit against the major players in the touch-screen mobile market ended in the Federal Circuit, which confirmed that two patents required that a computer have specific software installed, not merely the capacity to run said software should it be installed.  In a small comfort to the patent holder, the Circuit also reversed a holding that certain patent claims were unsupported means-plus-function claims, finding that a textual description of the procedure involved qualified as an “algorithm” for Aristocrat purposes. Background In 1988, prosecution began on a chain of patent applications that culminated in Patents No. 5,379,057 (‘057) and No. 5,675,362 (‘362), issued in 1995 and 1997 respectively.  Both patents disclosed a “portable, keyboardless computer” with components including “a touch-sensitive screen … configured for entry of responses” and an “application generator for generating [at least one] data collection application and for creating different functional libraries”. Typhoon Touch Technologies, Inc., the present assignee of the patents, sued

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Federal Circuit Overturns District Court’s Claim Construction in Markem-Imaje Corp. v. Zipher Ltd.

.By Zi Wang In Markem-Imaje Corp. v. Zipher Ltd., 657 F.3d 1293 (Fed. Cir. 2011), the Federal Circuit per curiam majority overturned the district court’s claim construction and summary judgment of noninfringement. Markem-Imaje Corp. sued Zipher Ltd. and Videojet Technologies, Inc. (together “Zipher”), requesting a declaratory judgment that Zipher’s ‘572 patent is not infringed by Markem.  The ‘572 patent is directed to a heat transfer printing apparatus that provides increased control over the acceleration, deceleration, speed, and positional accuracy of the printing operation.  In transfer printers in general, the ink ribbon is wound on two spools, one spool for supplying the ribbon for positioning on the substrate, and the other spool for taking up the ribbon after use.  Maintaining correct ribbon tension is essential for proper functioning of the printer.  The patent specification explains the problems with the mechanism that has been used to provide ribbon tension in prior art printers.  It then distinguishes the prior apparatus from what the

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Vexatious Plaintiff Is Slapped With $4.5M In Fees

By Zi Wang In MarcTec LLC v. Johnson & Johnson, 664 F.3d 907 (Fed. Cir. 2012), the Federal Circuit affirmed the district court’s holding that the case is exceptional and awarded a total amount of more than $4.5 million in attorney and expert fees to the defendant. Plaintiff MarcTec filed suit against Cordis, a subsidiary of Johnson & Johnson, alleging the latter of infringing the ‘753 and ‘290 patents. The two patents-in-suit are directed at surgical devices and implants with a therapeutic-agent-containing coating bonded by heat.  According to the prosecution history, in order to overcome the PTO’s rejection over the ‘417 patent, the patentee highlighted the fact that the coating is to be bonded by heat.  The patentee also tried to distinguish his invention from stents during prosecution for similar reasons.  The allegedly infringing product in question is the Cypher stent manufactured by Cordis.  The product utilizes the technology disclosed by the ‘417 patent, the same patent plaintiff distinguished and

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Difference in Prior Art Requirements in Obviousness and Anticipation; Broad Genus Disclosures in Prior Art

By Charles Pierce   In ClearValue, Inc. v. Pearl River Polymers, Inc., the Federal Circuit ruled that Claim 1 of U.S. Patent No. 6,120,690 (the ‘690 patent) was invalid because it was anticipated by a broad genus disclosure in U.S. Patent No. 4,800,039 (Hassick). ClearValue accused Pear River of indirectly infringing the ‘690 patent by selling high molecular weight DADMAC polymers to customers who would then use the DADMAC polymers and aluminum polymers to clarify water.  Claim 1 of the ‘690 patent reads: A process for clarification of water of raw alkalinity less than or equal to 50 ppm by chemical treatment, said process comprising: adding to the water and, prior to or after adding to the water, blending at least one aluminum polymer with a high molecular weight quaternized ammonium polymer in an amount sufficient to form a flocculated suspension in the water and to remove turbidity from the water, said high molecular weight quaternized ammonium polymer comprising at

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Federal Circuit Finds Noninfringment of System Claim Since No Single Entity Owns Each Element of Claim

In McKesson Tech, Inc. v. Epic Systems Corp., 98 USPQ2d 1281 (Fed. Cir. 2011), McKesson is the owner of U.S. Patent No. 6,757,898 (the ‘898 patent).  The ‘898 patent is directed to a communication method between doctors and patients in which patients are able to access webpages with customized content specific to the doctor and patient, such as allowing appointments and providing prescription refill requests. 

Federal Circuit Finds Specification Precludes Narrow Claim Interpretation

In Arlington Indus., Inc. v. Bridgeport Fittings, Inc., 632 F.3d 1246; 97 U.S.P.Q.2D 1811 (Fed. Cir. 2011), Arlington Industries is the owner of U.S. Patent No. 5,266,050 (hereinafter the ‘050 patent) and U.S. Patent No. 6,521,831 (hereinafter the ‘831 patent).  The ‘050 patent relates to an electrical connector that snaps into electrical junction boxes, whereas the prior art connector required a threaded nut which required two hands to install.  The claimed electrical connector only required one hand, and recites, among other features “a circular spring metal adaptor” in claim 8 of the ‘050 patent and “a tubular spring steel adapter” in claim 1 of the ‘831 patent. Arlington Industries filed suit in the Middle District of Pennsylvania against Bridgeport Whipper-Snap alleging one set of products infringe claim 8 of the ’050 patent (herein after “Arlington I”).   Arlington Industries later filed a second suit against Bridgeport Whipper-Snap in the Middle District of Pennsylvania  alleging another set of products infringed claim 8

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Federal Circuit Defines When A System Is Being Used Where No Party Owns All of the System Elements

In Centillion Data Systems v. Qwest Communications International, 631 F.3d 1279; 97 U.S.P.Q.2D  1697 (Fed. Cir. 2011), Centillion is the owner of U.S. Patent No. 5,287,270 (the ‘270 patent”), which is drawn to a system for collecting and processing billing information from a service provider and electronically delivering the billing information from the service provider to a customer in a format usable on a personal computer.  As construed by the Federal Circuit, claim 1 recites a system for presenting information comprising “1) storage means for storing transaction records, 2) data processing means for generating summary reports as specified by a user from the transaction records, 3) transferring means for transferring the transaction records and summary reports to a user, and 4) personal computer data processing means adapted to perform additional processing on the transaction records.”  Centillion acknowledged that claim features 1) through 3) are performed at a backend at the service provider and claim feature 4) is maintained by a

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